- Strong heavy melee infantry tradition
- Roman warshhips all require a ramp of Food and Wealth, but don't cost anything else.
- Roman warships have lower range than Greek ones, but slightly higher attack.
Like the Greeks, offensive strength in mass assaults on enemy positions is the name of the game for these factions, be it through the use of shock power (Carthaginians) or a more superior light skirmishing component (Numidians).
- Carthaginian heavy units deal less damage, cost more wealth, but have discounts on other resources and added bonus armour - best armour bonus in the game, in fact.
- Carthaginian warships have an attack bonus versus siege weapons.
- Numidian cavalry can fire on the move.
The way of warfare for the Celts is to use cheap but fairly weak infantry, supported by more powerful heavy infantry and leaders, in order to flood the battlefield to the point that all resistance is futile.
Celtic units generally sacrifice armour for added attack, thus making them a bane especially for more lightly armoured foes, with many of their units possessing the attack strength of 1st Reform-level units. Should that fail, then the superior strenghth of the Celtic light cavalry ought to be used, either in the form of an added anti-melee bonus for cavalry or better speed and attack for missile cavalry.
- Infantry are created cheaper, but have less armour.
- Missile cavalry units have better movement speed and attack.
- Light melee cavalry deal added damage to foot units.
- Ships have lower range, but have added movement speed and hitpoints.
Iberian factions are known for light skirmishing tactic and highly skirmish-resistant cavalry. Many of their units tend to be cloakable, with the Celtiberians specialising in stealth cavalry, and the Lusitanians in stealth infantry.
- No melee non-heavy infantry, beyond Mezukenoi: all non-spear units are armed with javelins!
- Iberian cavalry have damage resistance versus ranged cavalry
- (Celtiberi) Melee cavalry UUs cloaked when not moving.
- (Lusitanians) : Infantry UUs cloaked when not moving.
Although they share ways with the Celts, the Germans specialise in hosting all manner of infantry units. Like the Celts, they too also pursue light and medium cavalry warfare and unlike the Romans and Greeks are very efficient at it. Celtic and Germany stable units all sacrifice armour for hitting power, and are also more efficient at ranged combat.
Fast- attacking infantry and powerful medium cavalry units capable of knocking down all other light cavalry units typify the Balkan way of war.
Sub-factions and Imperivm Invictvm factions should also receive this bonus, so ON TOP of being able to hit harder, Illyrioi should also have an anti-Greek, anti-Celt bonus too.
- All UUs have faster attack speed
- (Illyrian type units only) added attack versus Greek and Celtic units.
Down but not out, the Hellenic factions are perhaps amongst the most technologically advanced faction, with most upgrades available to them, as well as a healthy mix of melee infantry, naval strength and siege engineering.
- Bactrians (Eastern Greek)
- Epirotes (Western Greek)
- Macedonians (Western Greek)
- Pergamenes (Western Greek)
- Pontics (Persian Greek)
- Ptolemaic Egyptians (Egyptian Greek)
- Seleucids (Eastern Greek)
The Iranian peoples are not known for fielding good infantry, but their cavalry component is second to none, with fast-hitting and far-ranging cavalry archers as well as powerful heavy cavalry — by far, perhaps the best in the game.
Lower armour and toughness is the price Arabian factions pay for units that move — with the speed of summer lightning, and which are able to cause damage to enemy buildings! for the Sabaeans, that ability to damage buildings is increased, while Nabataeans enjoy an armor bonus, being able to recruit units with both added armour and speed, making them a force to reckon with.
- Infantry have the following bonuses: created 7% cheaper, and 10% faster.
- Infantry have added movement speed
- Infantry deal 10% damage to enemy buildings, but have substantially less armour (10-33%)
- (Nabataeans only) Infantry and cavalry have added armour (armour penalty for infantry removed)
- (Sabaeans) infantry created 14% cheaper, move faster, and deal additional 5% damage to buildings.